Soil: Sandy, Acidic, Well-drained
Moisture: Moist to Dry
Light: Full Sun
Plant Height: 40 to 60 feet
Plant Width: 30 to 50 feet
Landscape Value: Great in nutrient-poor soils. Provides visual interest for its open, unusual growth habitat.
A medium-sized, fire-adapted tree with a broad, open crown and gnarled, drooping branches. The bark is dark and scaly when young, becoming red-brown to gray with deep furrows and thick rectangular plates. Stiff, 4-inch long needles occur in bundles of three and are often twisted. Light brown cones occur in clusters and persist on the tree. Cones take two years to mature, with some releasing seeds immediately and others only in response to heat from fire or, more slowly, hot and dry weather. Seed production starts early as trees begin bearing cones at 3 to 10 years of age. Tree growth is rapid when young, up to one foot per year. Extremely resilient to fire and herbivory by deer. When stressed, shoots sprout from the root crown and from dormant buds under the bark. Tolerates salt, drought, dry and rocky soil, and nutrient-poor soil. Susceptible to wind damage. Provides cover, nesting sites, and food for songbirds and small mammals.
2 gallon pot
Finger Lakes Native Plant society
Native Plant Trust (photos by Glenn Dreyer, John Lynch)
UCONN Plant Database