CT E EcoR
Soil: Well-drained loams
Moisture: Moist to Dry
Light: Full to Part Sun (prefers full sun)
Plant Height: 10 to 15 feet
Plant Width: 8 to 13 feet
Landscape Value: Great for naturalized areas and open woodland gardens where it can be allowed to spread. Good as a screen or planted at the rear of shrub borders.
A wildlife magnet! A dense, multi-stemmed shrub with dark green leaves that turn various shades of yellow, orange, and red in the fall. Male and female flowers occur in separate catkins in early spring. Female flowers are inconspicuous and produce small (pea-sized) brown nuts encased in ragged, papery husks in late summer. Nuts are favored by squirrels, foxes, deer, game birds, blue jays, and woodpeckers. Male catkins are a winter food source for ruffed grouse and turkey. The dense growth habit provides cover and nesting sites for birds and other wildlife. For best nut production, three or more shrubs are recommended as female flowers are incompatible with pollen from the same shrub. Plants are wind-pollinated and cross-pollination is required. Nut production is greatest on plants grown in full sun. Fertilizing is not necessary but, if you choose to fertilize, avoid high-nitrogen inorganic fertilizers as these decrease nut production. Instead, use low-nitrogen organic fertilizers like manure, mushroom compost, and fish emulsion. Spreads by root suckers to form colonies, so suckers should be removed unless naturalizing. Tolerates black walnut, clay soil, and occasional drought. Nuts are similar in flavor to the European filbert and can be roasted and eaten or ground into flour.
1 gallon pot, 6-12 inches tall
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
minnesotawildflowers.info (photos by Katy Chayka and Peter Dziuk)